Tag Archives: linguistics

A Wordplay Buzz

Today; April 23, is International Irony Day. Seriously now, it is; don’t laugh.  Interestingly enough, we also happen to live on a planet where what pretty much everyone believes that the definition of Irony – or what they think irony is, is in fact, sarcasm.  The definition and examples of what most people would immediately call irony, is actually sarcasm – and we still decided to make April 23rd “International Irony Day”.  How messed up is that?

Do you know what’s even more messed up? The “irony” that’s being celebrated today is actually sarcasm, so today should be International Sarcasm Day, but nobody knows the difference anymore.  This is so IRONIC that it’s textbook irony, but it also mathematically validates the premise for International Irony day; so in the end, International Irony Day is ironic & as such, legitimate, but nobody knows because they think irony is sarcasm, which makes International Irony Day even more ironic.

Damn!  How does that shit happen?

I need to sit down for a minute….

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21ST CENTURY QUIRKS AND NUANCES

Today I received a call on my cell phone from myself; that is to say that the caller id indicated that I was the caller.  This was at first confusing, but then intriguing, so I dared myself to answer…myself and see what I wanted, but I chickened out.  A few minutes later, I called myself again and this time, I was not happy with myself for interrupting me!  I should know how busy I am, so this time I answered.  I guess I had nothing to say to myself because I hung up.  Then I started worrying that I would begin to call constantly and make a nuisance of myself to me, I got so worked up I had to take a Xanax, but only a .5, they just relax you a bit.  Then I wondered if I could block my own number so I couldn’t call myself anymore and even though it seemed a bit paradoxical, I decided to try it, so I blocked my own number and about 30 seconds later, the lights dimmed a bit and every toilet in zip code 33317 flushed simultaneously, resulting in an overload on the water management mechanism that uses the intra-coastal waterway as a drainage system.  The overload strained the pressure filters in the main reservoir, causing an electromagnetic surge to be emitted into the water of the main reservoir which is connected to the canal system that runs through the entire city including my back yard.  The surge was so powerful that it caused a a chemical reaction that resulted in spontaneous mass electrolysis, separating the water into oxygen and hydrogen in two gigantic bubbles at high velocity.  Gas doesn’t navigate very well so the bus-sized bubbles couldn’t turn right when the canal did and hit the retaining wall of the canal, bursting and shooting thousands of tiny hydrogen and oxygen bubbles into the air.  The hydrogen bubbles rose to the level of the power lines running along the streets and ignited upon contact, creating thousands of small ‘pop’ mini explosions.  Fortunately, they were so small they didn’t do any damage but the sound they made was identical to the mating call of Mothra (from the Godzilla movie), who showed up 3 minutes later and tried to mate with a trawling dredge towing a net to clean the canal (Mothra doesn’t see too well).  In all the excitement, the skipper of the dredge panicked and reached for his cell phone to call for help but got confused and dialed his own number by mistake and then the universe disappeared.

Only in 2016.

Laugh every once in a while, it cleans the soul’s palate and makes the world taste a little bit better.   – ctwfrank

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Wordplay 2016: The irony of irony

A pristine example of the continued dismantling of significance and meaning in the use of the English language is found in the word IRONY.  Most people don’t know what it actually means and almost everyone thinks it means something else.  Further, the word is used in the common lexicon as if what everyone thinks it means is real and correct and by virtue of being accepted as such, its warped meaning becomes true by consensus.

An example of this phenomenon can be seen in popular music, specifically one song, titled Ironic.  This is not a criticism of the song or its spectacular author and singer; in fact the song is a personal favorite.  This is an observation of a linguistic affectation manifested by the civilization dynamic, not a judgment.  The lyrics of the song give examples of ironies such as, “rain on your wedding day” and “winning the lottery, then dying the very next day”.  These are excellent lyrics as far as communicating the sentiment that the song is imbued with; one that aligns perfectly with what almost everyone thinks is irony, but it’s not.   The ironies cited in the lyrics are actually examples of bad luck or negative causality, but not irony.  So then, what does irony actually mean?  Let’s look at the dictionary:

i·ro·ny
ˈīrənē/
noun: irony+9

  1. the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
  2. a state of affairs or an event that seems deliberately contrary to what one expects and is often amusing as a result.
  3. a literary technique, originally used in Greek tragedy, by which the full significance of a character’s words or actions are clear to the audience or reader although unknown to the character.

 

The third definition is the one that gave birth to the word linguistically; its morphemic roots are tied to dramatic theater and form part of the literary forms that includes satire.

 

In conclusion, it turns out that irony is ironic; literally.

 

ctwfrank

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A chance to do better for the father of the math.

My father, born Mario Francisco Vidal on October 4, 1923 in Key West, son to Victor Vidal and Dolores Lopez Mayg, also of Key West, FL, passed away this past July 6th, three months shy of his 90th  birthday. You may have even ready my post of the day he passed and perhaps even been one of the countless well-wishers who crashed my e-mail server with e-mails!  My father loved his home town and carried that love, and the name of Key West, to the 18 countries that he would live in during his career as one of the world’s top hoteliers.  Before passing away, the only request he made of his wife and his five sons was that Key West be the final resting place for his ashes.  Our family’s commitment to honoring my father’s last request is what is at the root of this message, but it can be much more than that, if we choose as much.

Our plan is to drive to Key West on Friday; October 4, 2013, what would have been his 90th birthday, and together with friends and other members of the family we will do as he instructed us to and spread his ashes out on the water from the Reynolds Street Pier, the very place where he learned to swim as a child. My father was a man who spread a great deal of love during his lifetime and that love was returned and has manifested in the multitudes of people who will join us on October 5th to bring a Native Son of Key West back home to rest and pay our last respects.  We need your help to do this;  How?  We need a tiny bit of financial support in order to make this happen and you can be a part of it!  I am asking for you help by contributing whatever you can.  There are many of you and even though we only have 24 hours, I’ve never known you to back down or not step up.  This is a chance to do better, between all of us, we can give my father the only this he asked all of us for:  to go back home to rest in peace.    I invite you to participate in what is a truly human event.  I will be posting on the events of the upcoming weekend and everyone who was a part of this journey will have their name listed in the honor plaque that I will post next weekend; never forget – what any one of us can do, two can improve on and many of us can make it happen!  Thank you for your support!  Just click on the Donate button below to join the caravan and bring a native son of Key West back home!

Now this is what I call doing better!

ctwfrank

Just click on the link below to be a part of this grand homecoming!   Thank you!

https://www.paypal.com/cgi-bin/webscr?cmd=_s-xclick&hosted_button_id=M5PLFS5TQH7WN

 

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CONVERSATIONS WITH MY FATHER – EXPECTATIONS

“This is the first of a series of posts with the same title:  “Conversations with my father”.  I like the multi-function use of the title:  It’s the title and the content.  Each post’s title will have the subject of that particular conversation with my father at the end of the title.  Enjoy!”

 

This was the last complete, coherent and contiguous conversation I had with my father; it was not that long ago. 

While visiting one Sunday, my father approached me and asked if I could spare him a minute or two.  My father was always the living example of courtesy and chivalry.  We sat in my study and he said;

“Son, I’ve come to realize and accept that you are a fully grown adult and have earned the right to be called a man.  That means that my job, the one I accepted as your father is complete and I am satisfied with the job I’ve done. Your job; the one you accepted, whether you like it not, is different, but that’s your road, not mine.  I’m just letting you know that you can start yours whenever you like, you’re ready.”

This was not not a typical conversation to have with my father and he was not one to say something like this as a prank, so I did what I usually did with anything my father told me:  I took it at face value and gave it due consideration.  Our conversations were not humorless, however; I took a moment to comment on how timely his announcement of my manhood was, after all, I was only 50.  We laughed for a moment and then I knew that he expected a reply from me.

I began to do some furious math in order to reply properly; there was not a single moment during his life that passed without my wanting to make him proud of me.  After considering his statement as carefully as I could, I had a reply for him; I said;

“You know, pop, that’s a very important issue for me.  I know I have a job to do.   I’m not scared and I’m confident that I am well prepared for whatever it may be, but it is somewhat unsettling at times to not know what is expected of me.”

My father jumped right back into the conversation with a combination of wisdom and mischief in those hauntingly blue eyes of his.  He sat upright and said:

“Excuse me.  What did you just say?  Did you say you didn’t know what is expected of you?  That isn’t even a coherent sentence in English – and you’re supposed to be the smart one!  There cannot be any expectation of any person without another person to hold that expectation; it’s a strictly human concept.  Oh, shit!   Now I’m beginning to talk like you!  He giggled and continued. How can you tell me that you don’t know what is expected of you without knowing or mentioning WHO is the owner of that expectation?  Only people can have expectations of other people, so who were you referring to when you said you didn’t know what was expected of you, perhaps Society?  Society isn’t a person, it can’t have expectations of you or anyone else, but we can choose to believe it can and if you do; you’re fucked. So, Mr. Smarty pants, would you like to try that again?

I said, quickly:  “Wow, Pop, that’s good” Because it was.  It left me pondering (a dangerous thing to do.)

After a few minutes, I turned to face my father, who was sitting patiently, immensely enjoying the opportunity to watch me squirm and said.   You are, of course, right Pop.  I have to re-do all the math on that.  Thanks, Pop, if you hadn’t brought the point up, I could have easily screwed the pooch when the time came!  Then I had a thought a with it the hope of redeeming myself from the hole I had so easily fallen into during that conversation.  Almost immediately, I said:

“Hey, pop, may I ask you something, since we’re here and already talking?”

“Of course!”  He shot back.

I looked him square in the eyes, which was not an easy thing to do with him, and asked him:

“Indeed,  you have completed your job and have declared as much, but you are still my father, so I ask you; Father; what do you expect of me, Sir?”

I thought I had him for sure, but then I saw his mischievous grin begin to form and he sat back in his chair, crossed his legs, put his hands on his lap and very calmly and very matter-of-factually answered:

“Me?  I expect for you to change the world.”

What else can be said and what else can any man hope to know beyond what his father expects of him.

That’s my Pop.

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FIFTY-TWO

Today is my birthday and I turn fifty-two.

So what does that mean, for me or for you?

There’s not much about age that the math can provide,

Save the count of our years and its sting on our pride.

 

Here’s a little math trick on which you can chew,

‘Bout the momentous occasion of turning fifty-two.

The math is sound, and it is also quite true,

That at some point in time this math will apply to you.

 

Today is my birthday, and I turn fifty-two,

So what does that mean for me or for you?

Not much save that regardless of who you might be or what you may do,

The math at this point probably yields that I’m the older of the two.

 

In everyone’s life we arrive at a place,

Where we can no longer prevent wrinkles on our face.

We can no longer assume that with everyone we meet,

We are always the pup, the youngster on the street.

 

52 is the point where the odds shift the norm.

And they accomplish this with such curious form.

If we pay attention and listened while still being weaned,

At this point we’d savor the knowledge we’ve gleaned.

 

And if we’ve become wise and learned how to love,

We can share what we’ve learned and what comes forth thereof.

 

My twenties ran by, or rather they flew.

My thirties fit me like a comfortable shoe.

My forties made me ask if I’d learned what I thought I knew,

So, I leave you with this: good advice – served up in a tasty word brew:

 

Today is my birthday and I turned fifty-two.

So what does that mean for me or for you?

I choose to share what I’ve learned and hope that it’s true,

That you’ll do the same, when it’s your turn to be the older of the two.

 

We are all we have.

 

We can do better.

 

ctwfrank

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A most spectacular standard deviation

Since I moved the Catalogue of Calculations to wordpress, I don’t think I have ever addressed you, all of you, directly. I have no problem when my mind tells me that I am writing for all of you, but even though I know what the numbers that represent how many of you there are mean, I have had no sense of scale with which to compare that written numerical quantity, until now, and I have not completely assimilated the scale yet.

THANK YOU!; THANK ALL OF YOU!

…for crashing two of my mail servers with the ocean of condolences, blessings and good wishes that I’ve received after posting a  few words in recognition and in honor of my father, who passed away this last Saturday; July 6.  I am moved beyond words, but for only a few seconds!

WOW!; there are SO MANY OF YOU I had no idea what that felt like so thank you also for doing some math that allowed me to have a sense of scale.   I do not know exactly how many e-mails were received, some of them may have been lost when the server crashed, but it doesn’t matter it would take more than 3 of my father’s 90 year lifetimes, reading without stopping for food or sleep for 92% of each lifetime to make a small dent in the total that made it through.

I could easily say that I don’t know what to say, but that would be a lie and I would fall down dead immediately.  It’s not that I don’t know what to say, it’s that I can’t fathom how to reply to each and every one of you even to just write THANK YOU.  That’s the thing about time, you can delude yourself by thinking she will succumb to math, but she laughs at math and at us. (If we were able to perceive time as a human manifestation, it would indisputably be a female manifestation).    I can’t count this post as a means to accomplish what I want to do because it doesn’t.  It would be cheating; it would simply way beyond comfortable to express my love and gratitude to each one of you with one general-purpose thank you post, in fact it would be cheating, which is a first cousin of lying and once again, I would immediately fall drop dead.    A short while ago, I thought of something that might just come close to answering each and every one of the e-mails that continue to arrive.  I remembered that in mathematics, you should always use the right type of math for the problem to be solved.  Since I was counting, a function of quantity, I naturally continued to think in terms of Arithmetic to figure out how to solve this quandary.   This math can’t be solved with Arithmetic; it’s not a numeric problem as much as it is a matter of scale, so that makes it a job for physics!  The rest came easy.  Here’s the math:

I am not physically able to individually write a response to each and every one you, but I can THANK YOU in all of the languages that you have written to me in, or at least the ones I’ve encountered so far.  This way the scale can be accounted for through the use of language and linguistics.  Each one of you knows what language is your primary language and it is also the language you used to write so many beautiful words.  Below this paragraph is an image (it had to be an image because we still suck at font compatibility).  In that image, the words THANK YOU are written in each of the 51 languages that you have written to me in, so when you read it in your native language, know that I am thanking you directly, and every other person who wrote to me in your language instead using individual names.  It’s the closest I could come to a personal reply that yielded a valid condition for the purpose of the function.  So here it is;

Dankie

 

(The last one- with all the numbers; is thank you in binary.  It would be unacceptable to leave out computers.  I owe them a great debt for sacrificing so many of their total number at the hands of my dad!  They provided him with comfort, entertainment and even companionship at times. So they go on the list.)

On behalf of my father and myself, I’ll thank you all one more time, in the one language that isn’t on the list because it is my primary language and I wanted to write in a very personal way, with every ounce of my heart:

THANK YOU!

We just DID better, keep it going!

ctwfrank

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WORDPLAY REX

There’s a reason why I consider this post the “king” of the Wordplay Series.  If you continue reading and follow the math, you might just see it as you read.  It is what we all need to know but don’t really want to see:  an inarguable example of our self-destruction and probable demise.  I hope we all see it; we are capable of so much more.
 
As usual, it all starts with one little word, in this Wordplay example, that word is:

profit

prof·it

[prof-it]

noun

  1. Often, profits.
    1. Pecuniary (pecuniary: of or pertaining to money) gain resulting from the employment of capital in any transaction. Compare gross profit, net profit.
    2. the ratio of such pecuniary gain to the amount of capital invested.
    3. returns, proceeds, or revenue, as from property or investments.
  2. the monetary surplus left to a producer or employer after deducting wages, rent, cost of raw materials, etc.: The company works on a small margin of profit.
  3. advantage; benefit; gain.

verb (used without object)

  1. to gain an advantage or benefit: He profited greatly from his schooling
  2. to make a profit.
  3. to take advantage: to profit from the weaknesses of others.
  4. to be of service or benefit.
  5. to make progress.

verb (used with object)

  1. to be of advantage or profit to: Nothing profits one so much as a sound education.

Origin:

1250–1300;  (noun) Middle English  < Middle French  < Latin prōfectus  progress, profit, equivalent to prō- pro-1  + -fec-,  combining form of facere  to make, do1  + -tus  suffix of v. action; (v.) Middle English profiten, derivative of the noun

That’s what we put in the dictionary; its definition, but what about the word’s meaning? A word’s definition is not the same as its meaning.  A word’s meaning is determined by how we use the word in our everyday lexicon and many times, the meaning we give to a word is not even remotely related to its definition.  Or is it?  We are the designers and builders of our own reality, so to distort a word’s definition to give it a meaning that yields some kind of benefit to someone is both wasteful and absurd. We created words and language, assigned the definitions and the meanings; why go through all of the trouble to alter a words definition to achieve a particular meaning as subtly and clandestinely as we do?  It’s almost as if someone or something else had created language and definitions and “we” were purposefully altering something that “they” established as a rule.  Who are “they”?  We’re only fooling ourselves and cheating ourselves and in the end we really can’t, because our sense of self-preservation doesn’t permit it.  We end up facing ourselves in a mirror and the person looking back knows what the deal is.  Let’s start the sequence.  Look at the very last listed definition of the word “progress” above; it says ‘to make progress’.  Progress; isn’t that what life is supposed to be all about?  Making progress?  Improving your ‘station’? Making a better life for our children? You know, progress:  We make progress by making money which is also how we believe our ‘station’ is improved and making money is pretty much the only way that anyone believes they can make a better world for their children.  Progress.  Progress IS profit, according to our own dictionary.  To progress is to profit, also defined as ‘making money’ (definition #1) and that’s how we ended up where we are.  We succeeded in creating a world where the entire point and purpose of a human life is to ‘make money’.  That is what we believe.  Still doubtful?  Okay, let’s continue the sequence.  Given the established and formal definition of the word ‘profit’ just examined, it would be correct to state that since the point of it all is to “profit”, then by definition, all of us would be “profiteers” and the definition of a profiteer should be something to the effect of “a person who works or labors specifically to make profits” or at least that what the rules of linguistics yield.  Let’s see.   Following is the definition of “profiteer”.

profiteer

prof·it·eer

[prof-i-teer]

noun

  1. a person who seeks or exacts exorbitant profits, especially through the sale of scarce or rationed goods.

verb (used without object)

  1. to act as a profiteer.
 Confused yet?  You should be.  If this is the definition of profiteer, then the definition of profit must be “the EXORBITANT pecuniary gain…..”  and “the EXORBITANT monetary surplus…”, but it isn’t, so once again, according to the rules and language and linguistics, by including the word “exorbitant” (defined as “exceeding the bounds of custom, propriety or reason, especially in amount…) a distinction is made and therefore “profiteer” doesn’t mean ‘everyone who benefits from any kind of profit in any way’, it means ‘a person who abuses the practice of profiting’ (because that’s what a person is doing when they make an exorbitant profit).  That slight distinction (sigh of relief) is what lets the vast majority of us off the hook, right?  Please.
 
 Isn’t making exorbitant profit(s) (something that results in a condition called “being rich”) the most celebrated, venerated and admired thing that anyone can accomplish?  It is what everyone strives for today.  It is the goal of every college student, businessperson, worker, unemployed person, housewife and even children.  What is more admired and desired than to be the person who finds a vast quantity of the THING that everyone wants to buy and which sells for $100.00 everywhere, at a cost of $.05 (five cents) and sells a gazillion of them.  Even more admired are those who accomplish this with a THING that is commonly known to be a bauble, or a useless and gimmicky gadget that no one should waste their money on but everyone does anyway.  So powerful is this accomplishment that it overcomes human EGO – it may be one of the few or even the only thing than can do this; the human ego is virtually unrivaled in its power of human behavior.  How, you say?  That’s easy; of all the people who have actually done what is described above; the thing virtually everyone dreams of and strives for, how many have become famous?  Can anyone name just one of the people who have “accomplished” this?  Their names are not generally known and purposefully so, if we attach a name to the act described above; we have identified a crook, but by keeping names out of it, what’s left is the act alone: the practically effortless, virtually immediate and gargantuan accumulation of money achieved by exploiting a systemic defect, in this case popularity and desirability; each a result of the use of human judgment, which may just be the most defective of all systems of any kind.  This has become humanity’s “golden fleece”, it has replaced any and all other purposes or objectives in life, it is what everyone desires (secretly or openly) and it is all that matters.  It is also fraud.  Still unconvinced?  Very well, let’s proceed.
 
Look at the definition of ‘profit’ again; it’s at the very beginning.  Notice how many times the word ‘advantage’ is used in the definition ‘profit’?  It’s even the 3rd literal definition of the word.  As a noun and in the company of ‘benefit or gain’, it’s rather inoffensive and even permissible, to a degree, but it’s also a verb and here things change.  We think that “advantage” is a good thing and a good word.  It’s good to have an advantage in everything and anything; it increases the chances of success of winning exponentially.  It’s even better to have an advantage in any given situation and that no one know you have an advantage, that makes it even sweeter, doesn’t it?  It lets us say things like “They never saw it coming.” and “They had no chance.”  Definitely an advantage is a good thing, perhaps that’s why it’s considered a profit.  Let’s look at the word ‘advantage for a moment.

advantage

ad·van·tage

[ad-van-tij, -vahn-]

noun, verb, ad·van·taged, ad·van·taging.

noun

  1. any state, circumstance, opportunity, or means specially favorable to success, interest, or any desired end: the advantage of a good education.
  2. benefit; gain; profit: It will be to his advantage to learn Chinese before going to China.
  3. superiority or ascendancy (often followed by over  or of  ): His height gave him an advantage over his opponent.
  4. a position of superiority (often followed by over  or of  ): their advantage in experienced players.
  5. Tennis. the first point scored after deuce.verb (used with object)
  6. to be of service to; yield profit or gain to; benefit.
  7. to cause to advance; further; promote: Such action will advantage our cause.
  8. to prove beneficial to; profit: It would advantage him to work harder.Idioms
  9. have the advantage of, to be in a superior or advantageous position; possess an advantage over: By virtue of independent wealth, he has the advantage of his opponents.
  10. take advantage of,
    -to make use of for gain: to take advantage of an opportunity.
    to impose upon, especially unfairly, as by exploiting a weakness: to take advantage of someone.
  11. to advantage, to good effect; advantageously: The paintings were arranged to advantage on one wall.

Advantage  (etymology)

early 14c., “position of being in advance of another,” from O.Fr. advantage, from avant “before,” probably via an unrecorded L.L. *abantaticum, from L. abante (see advance). The -d- is a 16c. intrusion on the analogy of Latin ad- words. Meaning “a favoring circumstance” (the opposite of disadvantage) is from late 15c. Tennis score sense is from 1640s, first recorded in writings of John Milton, of all people. Phrase to take advantage of is first attested late 14c.

Wow!  That’s one powerful definition!  Other than its use in the game of tennis the word advantage defines a characteristic, trait or situation that everyone desires.  It’s the closest thing to a “sure thing” that we can get away with.  It’s also the result of Wordplay of the word “cheating”.  The line between having an “advantage” and plain out cheating does not even exist, we just choose to believe it does so we don’t have to face the fact that it’s CHEATING.
 
Now, let’s do the math.  When you correlate the definitions and meanings of the words “profit”, “profiteer” and “advantage” and factor in the word “exploit” (a word inexplicably absent in the morphology of this entire analysis.  A word so abusively Wordplayed that it is defined – IN THE DICTIONARY – as a “striking or notable deed; feat; spirited or heroic act” AND “to utilize, especially for profit; turn to practical account: to exploit a business opportunity, to use selfishly for one’s own ends”, simultaneously.  Talk about irreconcilable, that’s probably why it’s been eliminated from the definitions of ‘profit’, ‘profiteer’ and ‘advantage’ – it would be a dead giveaway.) an inescapable conclusion is reached:  We have molded ourselves into a world where the driving force behind progress is fraud.  We reward the profit achieved through fraud but not the people who achieve it because we would then need to rewrite the definition of “hypocrisy”.  The money accumulated by profiting from an opportunity where one has the advantage, which is the same exact thing as saying ‘the money that one can accumulate by cheating in business and exploiting the flaws in human judgment in an unfair and biased way without remorse or regard for any consequence’ has become the highest possible achievement in today’s world.  It has become the point to anything and everything, the reason for living, the reason for getting up in the morning, the reason to do anything at all and that to which we owe our time and lives and existence to; it has become humanity’s new religion and money our new diety. 
 
In the end, it’s still fraud and a lie, neither of which work.  After all, everyone knows that the exploitation of a systemic defect is fraud, but it’s still what we want.  At least that’s what most of us choose to believe.  If you are still skeptical, just look in a mirror, no one can lie to the person looking back and that person can’t lie back.
 

Stop believing it.

 

We can do better.

 Citation list:

 American Psychological Association (APA):

profiteering. (n.d.). Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. 04 Jul. 2013Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved July 04, 2013, from

Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/profiteering

Chicago Manual Style (CMS):

profiteering. Dictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. 04 Jul. 2013 Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/profiteering (accessed: July 04, 2013).

Modern Language Association (MLA):

“profiteering.” Dictionary.com Unabridged. Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition.  HarperCollins Publishers. 04 Jul. 2013. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/profiteering&gt;.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE):

Dictionary.com, “profiteering,” in Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition. HarperCollins Publishers. 04 Jul. 2013 Dictionary.com Unabridged. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/profiteering. Available: http://dictionary.reference.com. Accessed: July 04, 2013.

BibTeX Bibliography Style (BibTeX)

@article {Dictionary.com2013,

title = { Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition.},

month = {Jul},

day = {04},

year = {2013},

url = {http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/profiteering},

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